When your working ability has been reduced

You may be granted a disability pension if your ability to work has been reduced for at least one year because of an illness, an injury or a handicap.

Vocational rehabilitation is the primary alternative before the disability pension. In connection with processing your application for a disability pension, your pension provider will also assess whether you meet the criteria for rehabilitation within the earnings-related pension system. If you do, you will get a preliminary decision of your right to rehabilitation without having to apply for it separately.

The disability pension can be granted if you are at least 17 years old but have not reached your retirement age yet. For a disability lasting less than a year, you may be granted a sickness allowance paid by Kela.

Your disability pension consists of the pension you have earned before your retirement on a disability pension and a projected pension component. The partial disability pension is half of the full disability pension.

For more detailed information on disability pensions and rehabilitation, contact your own earnings-related pension provider.

Go to your pension provider’s service

Disability pension for a fixed period or cash rehabilitation benefit granted until further notice

Benefits granted based on disability:

  • the cash rehabilitation benefit, granted for a fixed period
  • the disability pension, granted until further notice.

The disability pension is granted if your ability to work has been reduced by at least 60 per cent. When you reach retirement age, your disability pension will be changed to an old-age pension.

If there is a chance that your ability to work might be restored, you will be granted a temporary cash rehabilitation benefit.

When you apply for a cash rehabilitation benefit, you and your pension provider, employer and the occupational health care at your workplace will draw up a treatment and rehabilitation plan for you. The aim is to find out what kind of work would suite you, based on your education and work experience, bearing in mind your remaining ability to work.

Both benefits can be granted as a partial benefit if you can cope with part-time work or lighter work tasks. You can apply for a preliminary decision on your right to a partial disability pension while you are still working. After receiving a positive decision, you have nine months to decide whether to retire on the disability pension.

Grade of work ability Pensions granted until further notice Pensions granted for a temporary period
Loss of work capacity at least 60% Full disability pension Cash rehabilitation benefit
Loss of work capacity at least 40% Partial disability pension Partial cash rehabilitation benefit

Assessing disability

When assessing a reduced ability to work, both medical and socioeconomic factors are assessed. Your education, work experience and age are also taken into consideration.

The assessment is based on these documents that you have attached to your disability pension application:

  • Medical Statement B,
  • your own description of your illness, and
  • your assessment of how you can cope at work.

If you have turned 60, your ability to work is assessed under more lenient conditions.  Your ability to work is assessed based on your last work task, the length you have been working and how you cope at work.

The qualifying conditions for the disability pension are basically the same in all lines of business. However, if you are working in the public sector, both the general definition for disability and the definition for occupational disability are applied.

Amount of disability pension and projected pension component

The projected pension component is a calculated expected part of your pension. It compensates the pension that you have not accrued based on your wages because you have had to retire on a disability pension before reaching your retirement age.

You will get the projected pension component if you

  • earned €18,862.62 in total (in 2022) over 10 calendar years before you became disabled, and
  • paid earnings-related pension insurance on the income.

The projected pension component is calculated for the time from the beginning of the year that you retired on a disability pension to your retirement age. The accrual rate is 1.5 per cent of your total standard gross wages (wages before tax and social insurance contributions are taken out) for the five calendar years before you retired on a disability pension.

When calculating the projected pension component, your earnings from work and the earnings that your social benefits are based on will be taken into account. Social benefits include

  • the sickness allowance
  • the unemployment allowance,
  • the parental allowance, and
  • the compensation for a job alternation leave.

Example of projected pension component

You were born on 15 June 1959. You lose your ability to work in 2022. By the end of 2021, you have earned a monthly pension of 1,600 euros. Your projected pension component is calculated from January 2022 to the end of the month in which you reach your retirement age (64 years and 3 months): 21 months. Your monthly earnings for that period are set at 3,000 euros.

The life expectancy coefficient is applied to your accrued pension. The life expectancy coefficient used is the one confirmed for those born in 1959 (0.94984). Pension grows at a rate of 1.5% of your monthly wages.

1,600 euros/month x 0.94984 = 1,519.74 euros/month

3,000 euros x 21 months x 1.5% / 12 months = 78.75 euros/month

Your total disability pension is

1,519.74 euros/month + 78.75 euros/month = 1,598.49 euros/month

Check your pension record to see how much pension you have already accrued.

Check your pension record

Increases to the disability pension

If you are between the ages of 24 and 55, your pension will be permanently increased by a lump sum when your pension has continued uninterruptedly for five years. The younger you are at the onset of the disability, the bigger is the increase.

During your vocational rehabilitation, you will receive a rehabilitation allowance equal to the amount of your disability pension plus an additional 33 per cent.

Example of your rehabilitation allowance
Your monthly disability pension €1,800
Your total rehabilitation allowance €1,800 + (€1,800 x 33%) = €2,394

How does the life expectancy coefficient affect your disability pension?

If your disability pension began in 2010 or later, your accrued pension will be adjusted with the life expectancy coefficient of the year that your disability began. The life expectancy coefficient is not applied to the projected pension component. If you have turned 62 when your disability pension begins, your accrued pension will be adjusted by the life expectancy coefficient confirmed for the year in which you turned 62.

From a disability pension to an old-age pension

Your disability pension will be automatically converted to an old-age pension

  • when you reach the retirement age of your age group if your disability begins in 2017 or later;
  • at age 63 if your disability began between 2006 and 2016;
  • at age 65 if your disability began in 2005 or earlier.

If you have worked in an EU/EEA country or Switzerland, you may have the right to receive a disability pension also from these countries. The countries that Finland has signed a bilateral social security agreement with also pay disability pensions to Finland.

For more information on how to apply for a pension from abroad and the contact information of  the relevant foreign agencies, contact the Finnish Centre for Pensions:

  • phone +358 29 411 2110
  • e-mail: asiakaspalvelu(at)etk.fi.

Read more about how to claim a pension from abroad

Accidents, occupational diseases and industrial accidents are covered by their own statutory insurances (that means that they have been set up in law). If accidents, occupational diseases and industrial accidents cause disability, compensation is paid primarily from these insurances rather than from the earnings-related pension system. Generally, the compensation based on these insurances are higher than your accrued pension, so sometimes no pension is paid.

Nevertheless, you should  always apply for a disability pension. If your work capacity is restored and you return to work, you will accrue pension for the time you have received a disability pension. As a result, the level of your future old-age pension will improve.

In addition, if your insurance compensation is reduced later on, you may be entitled to an earnings-related pension. As a result, your level of income will be improved by the earnings-related pension.

Survivors’ pensions are paid out based on workers’ compensation insurance if the death was caused by a traffic or other accident. Also partners in a domestic partnership have the right to receive such a survivors’ pension.

Workers’ compensation insurance, motor liability insurance and earnings-related pension insurance are all statutory, which means they have been set up in law.

A partial disability pension does not require part-time work. If you are unemployed, you can register as a job seeker with a TE office and receive a partial disability pension and a reduced unemployment allowance.

If you are self-employed, you must reduce your work input and income from self-employment to a maximum of 60% of your income from full-time self-employment.